Meristems are centers of cell division and growth. In animals, totipotent stem cells, which can differentiate into any tissue type are only found early in development; however, plants contains such embryonic tissues throughout their lives.
Apical meristems are located on the very ends of shoots (shoot apical meristem) SAM and roots (root apical meristem) RAM. They produce three types primary meristems: the protoderm, ground meristem, and procambium. The protoderm gives rise to epidermis, which surrounds the plant. The ground meristem gives rise to ground tissue, a group of tissues with generalized functions such as photosynthesis, storage, and support. Finally, the procambium gives rise to the vascular tissue, which functions in transport. The three primary meristems first appear in the embryo proper, with the protoderm on the outside, the procambium in the center, and the ground meristem in between them.
Secondary meristems (lateral meristems) result in secondary growth, a woody increase in girth. These include the vascular cambium and cork cambium. The vascular cambium arises from from the procambium and pericycle in roots. In stems, it arises from procambium cells of the vascular bundles (fascicular cambium) and parenchyma cells between vascular bundles (interfascicular cambium). The vascular cambium gives rise to secondary phloem (part of the bark) and secondary xylem (wood).
The cork cambium arises from the pericycle in roots and the parenchyma cells of the cortex in stems, both of which arise from the ground meristem. The cork cambium produces periderm, secondary dermal tissue that is also a component of bark. (See Roots and Secondary Stem for more details.
Figure 4- Tissue development in stems. The shoot apical meristem produces the three primary meristems: procambium, ground meristem, and protoderm. The secondary meristems (lateral meristems) are the vascular cambium and cork cambium. The vascular cambium arises from the procambial cells of the fascicular cambium and the interfascicular cambium, which ultimately arose from the ground meristem. The ground meristem also produces the cortex, which generates the cork cambium
Other meristems include intercalary meristems which elongate stems from the “middle” (in between nodes) and marginal meristems, which are located along leaf edges and are responsible for leaf development.
Meristems related experiment:-